According to the Burmese chronicles, Bagan was founded in the second century CE, and fortified in 849 CE by King Pyinbya, 34th successor of the founder of early Bagan.[4] Mainstream scholarship however holds that Bagan was founded in the mid-to-late 9th century by the Mranma (Burmans), who had recently entered the Irrawaddy valley from the Nanzhao Kingdom. It was among several competing Pyu city-states until the late 10th century when the Burman settlement grew in authority.

Dhammayangyi temple

Dhammayangyi Temple is a Buddhist temple located in Bagan, Myanmar. Largest of all the temples in Bagan, the Dhammayan as it is popularly known was built during the reign of King Narathu(1167-1170). Narathu, who came to the throne by assassinating his father Alaungsithu and his elder brother, presumably built this largest temple to atone for his sins The Dhammayangyi is the widest temple in Bagan, and is built in a plan similar to that of Ananda Temple.Burmese chronicles state that while the construction of the temple was in the process, the king was assassinated by some Indians and thus the temple was not completed. Sinhalese sources however indicate that the king was killed by Sinhalese invaders. The temple's interior is bricked up for unknown reasons, thus only the four porches and the outer corridors are accessible.

Sulamani Temple

The Sulamani Temple is a Buddhist temple located in the village of Minnanthu (southwest of Bagan) in Burma. The temple is one of the most-frequently visited in Bagan. It was built in 1183 by King Narapatisithuand is similar to the Thatbyinnyu Temple in design. The Sulamani Temple also shows influence from the Dhammayangyi Temple, and was the model for the Htilominlo Temple. Sulamani Temple was restored after the 1975 earthquake, and utilises brick and stone, with frescoes in the interior of the temple.It was rebuilt in 1994.The Sulamani Temple is a Buddhist temple located in the village of Minnanthu (southwest of Bagan) in Burma. The temple is one of the most-frequently visited in Bagan.

Shwezigon Pagoda

The Shwezigon Pagoda or Shwezigon Paya is a Buddhist temple located in Nyaung-U, a town near Bagan, in Burma (Myanmar). It is a prototype of Burmese stupas, and consists of a circular gold leaf-gilded stupa surrounded by smaller temples and shrines. Construction of the Shwezigon Pagoda began during the reign of King Anawrahta and was completed in 1102 AD, during the reign of King Kyansittha of the Pagan Dynasty. The pagoda is believed to enshrine a bone and tooth of Gautama Buddha.Within the compound of the Shwezigon Pagoda is a stone pillar containing Mon language inscriptions dedicated by King Kyansittha.

Payathonzu Temple

The Payathonzu Temple literally "Temple of Three Buddhas" is a Buddhist temple located in the village of Minnanthu (southeast of Bagan) in Burma. It is unique in the sense that the temple consists of three temples conjoined through narrow passages. The interior of the temple contains frescoes, believed to be Mahayana and Tantric in style. However, the temple was not completed. The temple was recently renovated, with the completion of the three stupas atop the temple, which are lighter in colour.

Gawdawpalin Temple

Gawdawpalin Temple is a Buddhist temple located in Bagan, Burma (Myanmar). Construction of the pagoda began during the reign of Narapatisithu and completed on 26 March during the reign of HtilominloGawdawpalin Temple is the second tallest temple in Bagan. The temple is similar in layout to Thatbyinnyu Temple. Gawdawpalin Temple is two storeys tall, and contains three lower terraces and four upper terraces. The temple was heavily damaged during the 1975 earthquake and was reconstructed in following years. Gawdawpalin Temple in 1855 The Gawdawpalin Temple belongs to the style of the hollow gu-style temple. In contrast to the stupas, the hollow gu-style temple is a structure used for meditation, devotional worship of the Buddha and other Buddhist rituals. The gu temples come in two basic styles: "one-face" design and "four-face" design essentially one main entrance and four main entrances. Other styles such as five-face and hybrids also exist. The one-face style grew out of 2nd century Beikthano, and the four-face out of 7th century Sri Ksetra. The temples, whose main features were the pointed arches and the vaulted chamber, became larger and grander in the Bagan period.(Paragraph on "Hollow Temples" copied from Bagan).

Dhammayazika Pagoda

The Dhammayazika Pagoda is a Buddhist temple located in the village of Pwasaw (located east of Bagan) in Burma. It was built in 1196 during the reign of King Narapatisithu. The pagoda is circular in design, and is made of brick. Its three terraces contain terra cotta tiles illustrating scenes from the Jataka.

Shwe Sandaw Pagoda

The Shwesandaw Pagoda is a Buddhist pagoda located in Bagan, Burma. The pagoda contains a series of five terraces, topped with a cylindrical stupa, which has a bejewelled umbrella. The pagoda was built by King Anawrahta in 1057, and once contained terra cotta tiles depicting scenes from the Jataka. Enshrined within the pagoda are sacred hairs of Gautama Buddha, which were obtained from Thaton.

Mingalazedi Pagoda

Mingalazedi Pagoda is a Buddhist stupa located in Bagan, Burma. Construction started in 1274 during the reign of King Narathihapate.The pagoda is one of few temples in Bagan with a full set of glazed terra cotta tiles depicting the Jataka. The pagoda was built in brick and contains several terraces leading to large pot-shaped stupa at its centre, topped by a bejewelled umbrella .Mingalazedi Pagoda was built a few years before the First Burmese Empire (Pagan Kingdom) was pillaged by the Mongols.

Manuha Temple

Manuha Temple is a Buddhist temple built in Myinkaba (located near Bagan), by captive Mon King Manuha in 1067, according to King Manuha's inscriptions. It is a rectangular building of two storeys. The building contains three images of seated Buddhas and an image of Buddha entering Nirvana. Manuha Temple is one of the oldest temples in Bagan. About the same time Makuta, captive king of the Thaton Kingdom 150 (his name is now corrupted into 'Manuha'), must have built his colossal images at Myinpagan, where he was living in captivity, a mile S. of Pagan. "Stricken with remorse", says the Glass Palace Chronicle, "he built a colossal Buddha with legs crossed, and a dying Buddha as it were making pariniruâna; and he prayed saying 'Whithersoever I migrate in samsâra, may I never be conquered by another!' The temple is called Manuha to this day.

Thatbyinnyu Temple

Thatbyinnyu Temple Sabbannu or "the Omniscient", is a famous temple located in Bagan (formerly Pagan), built in the mid-12th century during the reign of King Alaungsithu.It is adjacent to Ananda Temple. Thatbyinnyu Temple is shaped like a cross, but is not symmetrical. The temple has two primary storeys, with the seated Buddha image located on the second storey.

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